A- A A+
Change background colour: 


Adler, L., & Attwood, M. (1987).  Poor Readers: what do they really see on the page?  A study of a major cause of dyslexia.  Los Angeles CA:  Los Angeles County Office of Education.http://ldx.sagepub.com/content/23/10/597.abstract

Allen, P., Dedi, S., Kumar, D., Patel, T., Aloo, M., & Wilkins, A. (2012). Accommodation, pattern glare, and coloured overlays. Perception, volume 41, pages 0000 – 0000. http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology/overlays/2012-211.pdf 

Allen, P., Evans, B., & Wilkins, A. (2012). The uses of colour in optometric practice to ameliorate symptoms of visual stress. Optometry in Practice 2012 Volume 13 Issue 1, pp. 1 – 8.http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology/overlays/2012-203.pdf

Allen, P.M. Gilchrist, J.M. ; Hollis, J. (2008). Use of visual search in the assessment of pattern-related visual stress (PRVS) and its alleviation by coloured filters. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 49(9), Pages 4210-4218. http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2164472

Allen, P.M.,  Hussain, A., Usherwood, C., & Wilkins, A.J. (2010). Pattern-related visual stress, chromaticity, and accommodation. Investigative  Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 51(12), Pages 6843-6849.http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2127522

Anstice, J. (2000).  Eye movements: Their importance for reading and some of the factors that disrupt them.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia, 5-8 July.

American Music Teacher (1996, June/July) Dyslexia or Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome? The Official Journal of Music Teachers National Association.  16-17.

Barbolini, G., Caffo, E., Robinson, G.L., & Wright, A. (1998).  Light sensitivity and some pervasive developmental disorders: autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder.  Modena International Conference on Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders.  Univer. Of Modena, Italy, 26-27 March.

Barbolini, G., Lazzerini, A., Pini, L.A., Steiner, F., Del Vecchio, G., Migaldi, M., Cavalllini, G.M. (2009).Malfunctioning cones and remedial tinted filters.  Ophta, 2/209, 101-105.

Barbolini, G., Migaldi, M., Wright, A., & Irlen, H. (1996).  A biological and medical approach to remedial chromotherapy.  Irlen Institute, Fourth International Directors/Screeners Conference, June 27-30, New Orleans, LA.

Barbolini, G., Wright, A., Migaldi. M., & Irlen, H. (1996).  A biological approach to remedial chromotherapy.  Published in the form of a booklet.  Available from: Irlen Centre East, 4 Park Farm Business Centre, Fornham St. Genevieve Bury St. Edmunds Suffolk IP28 6TS, UK.

Beasley, I.G., & Davies, L.N. (2013). Visual stress symptoms secondary to stroke alleviated with spectral filters and precision tinted ophthalmic lenses: a case report. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 96(1), 117–120.

Beasley, I.G., & Davies, L.N. (2012). Susceptibility to pattern glare following stroke. Journal of Neurology, 259(9), 1832-9.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22289968

Black, H. (1999).  Emily’s violet-coloured glasses.  Woman’s World, Oct. 19, 1999, 43.

Blakeslee, Sandra. (1991, September 15).  Study Ties Dyslexia to Brain Flaw Affecting Vision and Other Senses.  The New York Times.

Blaskey, P., Sheiman, M., Parisi, M., Ciner, E.B., Gallaway, M., & Selznick, R. (1990).  The Effectiveness of Irlen Filters for improved reading performance:  A pilot study.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 604-612.

Borsting, E., Chase, C., Tosha, C., & Ridder, W.H. (2008) Longitudinal Study of Visual Discomfort Symptoms in College Students. Optometry and Vision Science, 85(10), Pages 992-998.

Borsting, E., Ridder, W.H., Dudeck, K., Kelley, C., Matsuir, L., & Motoyama, J. (1996).  The presence of a magnocellular defect depends on the type of dyslexia.  Vision Research, 36, 1047-1053.

Bouldoukian, J., Wilkins, A.J., & Evans, Bruce J.W. (2002).  Randomised controlled trial of the effect of coloured overlays on the rate of reading of people with specific learning difficulties.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 22, 55-60.http://www.academia.edu/3127143/152._Bouldoukian_J._A.J._Evans_B.J.W._2002....

Bouma, H., & Legein, Ch.P. (1977).  Foveal and parfoveal recognition of letters and words by dyslexics and by average readers.  Neuropsycholgica, 15, 69-80.

Bouma, H., & Legein, Ch.P. (1980).  Dyslexia: A specific recoding deficit?  An analysis of response latencies for letters and words in dyslexics and average readers.  Neuropsychologica, 18, 285-298.

Boyle, C., & Jindal-Snape, D. (2012). Visual-perceptual difficulties and the impact on children’s learning: are teachers missing the page? Support for Learning, 27 (4), 166–171.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-9604.12001/abstract

Brannan, J.R., & Williams, M.C. (1988).  Developmental versus sensory deficit effects on perceptual processing in the reading disabled.  Perception and Psychophysics, 44, 437-444.http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758%2FBF03210428

Breitmeyer, B. (1980).  Unmasking visual masking: a look at the “why” behind the veil of the “how”. Psychology Review, 87, 52-69.

Breitmeyer, B.G. (1989).  A visually based deficit in specific reading disability.  The Irish Journal of Psychology, 10, 534-541.

Breitmeyer, B.G. (1993).  Sustained (P) and transient (M) channels in vision: a review and implications for reading. In D.M. Willows, R.S. Kruk, & E. Corcos (Eds.), Visual processes in reading and reading disabilities.  Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.  95-110.

Breitmeyer, B.F., & Breier, J.I. (1994).  Effects of background colour on reaction time to stimuli varying in size and contrast: inferences about human M channels.  Vision Research, 34, 1039-1045.http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu

Breitmeyer, B.F., & Ogmen, H. (2000).  Recent models and findings in visual backward masking: a comparison, review, and update.  Perception & Psychophysics, 62(8) 1572-1595.

Breitmeyer, B.F., & Williams, M.C. (1990).  Effects of isoluminant-background colour on metacontrast and stroboscopic motion: Interactions between sustained (P) and transient (M) channels.  Vision Research, 30(7) 1069-7052

Bruck, M. (1990).  Word-recognition skills of adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 26. 430-454.

Bulmer, J. (1994). Sensory overload and general well being: Can adults be helped by using Irlen lenses?  Unpublished honors thesis, Chester College of Higher Education, Chester, UK.

Burgess, J. (1990).  Long term evaluation of the effect of Irlen tinted lenses on academic and related skills.  Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis.  University of Canberra, Belconnen A.C.T. http://www.dyslexiaservices.com.au/Reading_Strategies.htm

Canino, F.J. (1981).  Learned helplessness theory: Implications for research in learning disabilities.  The Journal of Special Education, 15, 471-484.http://sed.sagepub.com/content/15/4/471.short

Cardona, G., Borràs, R., Peris, E., & Castañé, M. (2010) A placebo-controlled trial of tinted lenses in adolescents with good and poor academic performance: reading accuracy and speed. Journal of Optometry, 3(2), Pages 94-101. http://www.journalofoptometry.org/en/a-placebo-controlled-trial-of-tinted/articulo/13152348/ 

Carlile, C. (1997). Scotopic sensitivity syndrome sheds new light on reading disability.  Texas Reading Report, 19(4), 1-13.

Carmean, S., & Irlen, H.L.  The relationship of Irlen reading filter hues and contrast sensitivity.  Unpublished manuscript.

Casanova, C. (2003). The visual functions of the pulvinar. In Chalupa, L. and Werner, J., editors, The Visual Neurosciences, pages 592-680. The MIT Press.

Casanova, C., Savard, T., and Darveau, S. (1997). Contribution of area 17 to cell responses in the striaterecipient zone of the cat’s lateral posterior-pulvinar complex. European Journal of Neuroscience, 9(5):1026-1036.

Chan, L.K.S., & Robinson, G.L.W. (1989).  The effects of comprehension monitoring instruction for reading disabled students with and without tinted lenses.  Australian Journal of Special Education, 13, 4-13.

Chan, L.K.S., & Robinson, G.L.W. (1990).  The effects of poor readers responsiveness to metacognition instruction in comprehension.  Department of Education, University of Newcastle, Australia.http://pms.sagepub.com/content/79/1/467.refs

Chang, M., Kim,SH., Kim, JY., Cho, Y. (2014). Specific Visual Symptoms and Signs of Meares-Irlen Syndrome in Korean. Korean J Ophthalmol;28(2):159-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2014.28.2.159 

Chase, C.H. (1996).  A visual deficit model of developmental dyslexia.  In C.H. Chase, G.D. Rose, & G.F. Sherman (eds.), Developmental dyslexia: neural, cognitive, and genetic mechanisms (pp. 127-156). Timonium, MD: York Press.

Chase, C., Dougherty, R., Ray, N.m, Fowler, S., & Stein, J. (2007). L/M Speed-Matching Ratio Predicts Reading in Children. Optometry and Vision Science, 84(3), pp. 229-236.

Chase, C.H., & Jenner, A. (1993).  Magnocellular processing deficits affect temporal processing of dyslexics.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 682, 326-330.

Chase, C., Ashourzadeh, A., Kelly, C., Monfette, S., & Kinsey, K. (2003).  Can the magnocullular pathway read? Evidence from studies of colour.  Vision Research, 43, 1211-1222.

Chase, C., Tosha, C., Borsting, E., & Ridder, W.H. (2009). Visual Discomfort and Objective Measures of Static Accommodation. Optometry and Vision Science, 86(7), Pages 883-889.

Chelva, E., Collins, D.W.K., Levy, R.L., & McLaren, T.L. (1987).  Preliminary electrophysical testing of subjects with prescribed Irlen tinted lenses.  Dept. Biophysics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. Paper presented at the Dyslexia Research Foundation Seminar, Perth, W.A.

Cheng, A., Eysel, U., & Vidyasagar, T. (2004).  The role of the magnocellular pathway in serial deployment of visual attention.  European Journal of Neuroscience, 20(8), 2188-2192.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15450098

Chouinard, B.D., Zhou, C.I., Hrybouski, S., Kim, E.S., Cummine, J. (2012). A functional neuroimaging case study of Meares-Irlen syndrome/visual stress (MISViS) Brain Topography, 25 (3), pp. 293-307.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10548-011-0212-z#page-1 

Chronicle, E.P., & Wilkins, A.J. (1991)  Colour and visual discomfort in migraineurs.  The Lancet, 338, 890.

Clay, M.M., & Imlach, R.H. (1971).  Juncture, pitch and stress as reading behaviour variables.  Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 10, 133-139.

Colson, D. (2000). Thanks to Woman’s World, my son can finally read.  Woman’s World, March 14, 3.

Conlon, E. (2000).  Visual Perceptual Problems in Reading: Their relationship to reading disability and neural processing.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia. 5-8 July.

Conlon, E.G. ; Sanders, M.A., & Wright, C.M. (2009). Relationships between global motion and global form processing, practice, cognitive and visual processing in adults with dyslexia or visual discomfort.Neuropsychologia, 47(3), 907-915.

Conlon, E. ; Sanders, M. (2011). The reading rate and comprehension of adults with impaired reading skills or visual discomfort. Journal of Research in Reading, 34(2), 193-214.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2009.01421.x/abstract

Cotton, M.M., & Evans, K.M. (1990).  An evaluation of Irlen Lenses as a treatment for specific reading disorders.  Australian Journal of Psychology, 42, 1-12.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1080/00049539008260099/abstract

Cotton, M.M., & Evans, K.M. (1994).  Parents and children’s expectations about Irlen (tinted) lenses. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 1387-1390.

Coutts, L. Cooper, C.E., Elwell, C.E., & Wilkins, A.J. (2012). Time course of the haemodynamic response to visual stimulation in migraine, measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Cephalalgia32(8) 621–629.

Coyle, Barbara (1955).  Use of filters to treat visual-perception problem creates adherents and skeptics. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 152(5) 749-750.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1337628/

Crabtree, E. (2011). Educational implications of Meares-Irlen syndrome. British Journal of School Nursing, Vol. 6, Iss. 4, 13 May 2011, pp 182 – 187.

Creedon, M.P.,  & Reese, M.  Attention and perceptual skills of students with autism using Irlen coloured filters.  Unpublished manuscript. Hospital & Medical Center, Chicago.

Croyle, L., (1998).  Rate of reading, visual processing, colour and contrast.  Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 3, 13-21.

Croyle, M., & Solman R. (1996). Vision, reading and colour.  Presentation to 20th Annual conference of Australian Association of Special Education.

Croyle, L., Elliott, R., & Dain, S. (1997).  Reading, visual processing, colour and contrast.  (Unpublished manuscript, University of New South Wales, Australia)

Davis, M., & Dodds, S. (1986).  New Hope for Dyslexics.  New Texas, February/March 5.

Demb, J.M., Boynton, G.M., Best, M., & Heeger, D.J. (1998).  Psychophysical evidence for magnocellular pathway deficit in dyslexia.  Vision Research, 28, 1555-1559.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698998000753

Demb, J.M., Boynton, G.M., & Heeger, D.J. (1998).  Functional magnetic resonance imaging of early visual pathways in dyslexia.  Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 6939-6951.http://www.jneurosci.org/content/18/17/6939.full

Di Lollo, V., Hanson, D., & McIntyre, J.S. (1983).  Initial stages of visual information processing in dyslexia.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 9, 923-925.

Drew, S.A., Borsting, E., Stark, L.R., & Chase, C. (2012). Chromatic Aberration, Accommodation, and Colour Preference in Asthenopia Optometry and Vision Science, 89(7), E1059-E1067.

Dusek, W., Pierscionek, B.K., & McClelland, J.F.  (2010.) A survey of visual function in an Austrian population of school-age children with reading and writing difficulties. BMC Ophthalmology, 10(1), 16.

Eames, T.H. (1957). The relationship of the central visual field to the speed of visual perception. American Journal of Opthalmology, 43, 279-280.

Eden, G.F., VanMeter, J.W., Rumsey, J.M., Maisog, J.M., Woods, R.P., & Zeffiro, T.A. (1996).  Abnormal processing of visual motion in dyslexia revealed by functional brain imaging.  Nature, 382, 66-69.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8657305

Edwards, V.T., Hogben, J.H., Clark, C.D., & Pratt, C. (1996). Effects of a red background on magnocullular functioning in average and specifically disabled readers.  Vision Research, 36(7) 1037-1045.

Ekenna-Kalu, C., Fatolitis, P., Momen, N., Haseltine, C., Temme, L., Krouse., S. (2006). Meares-Irlen Syndrome Innovation Study: Assessment of the potential for coloured overlays to enhance the reading skills of listed recruits (Navy). Report by the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory (NAMRL), July, 2006.

Evans, B. (1994). The relationship between optometric problems, visual discomfort and reading difficulties.  Optician, 5436(207), 18-22.

Evans, B.J., Cook, A., Richards, I.L., & Drasdo, N. (1994).  Effect of pattern glare and colour overlays on a simulated reading task in dyslexics and normal readers.  Optometry and Vision Science, 71, 619-628.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7877805

Evans, Bruce J.W., & Joseph, Florence (2002).  The effect of coloured filters on the rate of reading in an adults student population.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 22, 535-545.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1475-1313.2002.00071.x/abstract

Evans, B.J.W., Patel, R., Wilkins, A.J., Lightstone, A., Eperjesi, F., Speedwell, L., & Duffy, J. (1999). A review of the management of 323 consecutive patients seen in a specific learning disabilities clinic. Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 19(6), 454-466.

Evans, B.J.W., & Stevenson, S.J. (2008) The Pattern Glare Test: A review and determination of normative valuesOphthalmic and Physiological Optics, 28 (4), pp. 295-309.

Evans, B. J. W., Wilkins, A. J., Brown, J., Busby, A., Wingfield, A., Jeanes, R., & Bald, J. (1996). A preliminary investigation into the aetiology of Meares-Irlen syndrome. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 16(4), 286-296.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1475-1313.1996.95001190.x/abstract

Evans, B. J. W., Wilkins, A. J., Busby, A., & Jeanes, R. (1996). Optometric characteristics of children with reading difficulties who report a benefit from coloured filters. In C. M. Dickinson, I. J., Murray, & D. Garden (Eds.), John Dalton’s colour legacy (pp. 709-715). London : Taylor and Francis.

Faraci, M.E. (2009). Does the Irlen Method Bring about an Increase in Reading Scores on a Specific Test of Reading for Students Found to Have Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome? Doctoral Dissertation. ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Alliant International University, San Diego.

Fisher, D.F., & Shebliske, W.L. (1985).  There is more that meets the eye than the eye mind assumption.  In R. Corner, G.W. McConkie, & C. Menz. (Eds.).  Eye Movements and Human Information processing. (pp149-157)  B.V. (North Holland): Elsevier Science Publishers.

Fletcher, J., & Martinez, G. (1994).  An eye movement analysis of the effects of Scotopic sensitivity correction on parsing and comprehension.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 67-70.http://ldx.sagepub.com/content/27/1/67.abstract

Floyd, R.A., Dain, S.J., Elliott, R.T. (2004). Is the perception of brightness different in poor readers?  School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of new South Walkes, NSW 2052, Sydney, Australia, Vision Research, Jan: 44(2), 221-7.

Foorman, B.R., & Liberman, B.R. (1989).  Visual and phonological processing of words: a comparison of good and poor readers.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 349-355.http://ldx.sagepub.com/content/22/6/349.abstract

Franklin, A., & Sowden, P. (2011). Colour and autism spectrum disorders. In C.P. Biggam (Ed.) New direction in Colour Studies (pp. 281-292). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing.

Fricker, S. (1989).  Do Irlen coloured glasses improve stereopsis and reading ability in children who have reading difficulties caused by visual perceptual distortion when they look at black print on white paper, and does their colour vision differ from the normal population?  Unpublished Diploma of Community Child Health Thesis, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.

 Geaney, E., McGeady, M., McMahon, T., Mahon, D., & Mullaney, P. (1991).  Eyes, filters and reading. A pilot study.  Report compiled from a pilot project conducted at Royal Victoria Eye Hospital, Adelaide Road, Dublin 2 and at the Irlen Centre, Palmerstown, Dublin 20.

Geiger, G., & Lettvim, J. (1987).  Peripheral vision in persons with dyslexia.  The New England Journal of Medicine, 20, 1238-1243.

Gole, G.A., Dibden, S.N., Pearson, C.R., Pidgeon, K.J., Hannell, G., Fitzgerald, B.A., Kortman, J.Y., & McGlinchey, N.D. (1989).  Tinted lenses and dyslexics: A controlled study.  Australian & New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, 17, 137-141.

Good, P.A., Taylor, R.H., Ophth, F.C., & Mortimer M.J., (1991).  The use of tinted glasses in childhood migraine.  Headache, September. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham and Midland Eye Hospital, Church Street, Birmingham, B3 2NS, England. Reprint requests to: Mr. P. A. Good.

Goodman, K.S., & Gollasch, E.V. (1980).  Word omissions: deliberate and nondeliberate.  Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 6-30.

Grandin, T. (2013). My experience with visual thinking and sensory oversensitivity: the need for research on sensory problems. In M.A. Just and K.A. Pelphrey (Eds.), Development and Brain Systems in Autism (pp. 3-12). New York, NY: Taylor & Frances.

Gray, J. (1999).  Visual perceptual difficulties and reading behaviour: Irlen syndrome and eye colour.  Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, University of Bristol, UK.

Gregg, P.J. (1989).  Dyslexia and tinted filters.  The Optician, January 29, 17-20.

Griffin, D.C., Walton, N.H., & Ives, V. (1974).  Saccades as related to reading disorders.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 7, 310-316.

Grosser, G.S., & Spafford, C.L. (1989).  Perceptual evidence for and anomalous distribution of rods and cones in the retinas of dyslexics: a new hypothesis.  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 68, 683-698.

Grosser, G.S., & Spafford, C.S. (1990).  Light sensitivity in peripheral retinal fields of dyslexic and proficient readers.  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71, 467-477.

Gustafson, S., Samuelsson, S., & Ronnberg, J. (1997).  Phonological training and reading skills: why do some resist?  In B. Ericson & J. Ronnberg (Eds.), Reading disability and its treatment, Norrkoping, Sweden: Eve Malmquist Institute for Reading.  Pp. 38-51.

Haag, S.R. (1984).  The IDPS children’s form: a validity study. Unpublished Master of Science thesis, California State University, Long Beach.

Hailey, D., & Lea, A.  (1992).  Irlen Lenses and the Reading Disabled.  The Bulletin for Learning Disabilities. 2. (1). Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra. 40-48.

Hannell G., Gole, G.A., Dibden, S.M., Rooney, F., Pidgeon, K.J., & McGlinchey, N.D. (1989.  Reading improvement with tinted lenses:  A report of two cases.  Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 72, 170-176.

Hazell, P, (2000).  Still Going.  Hyperactivity Enters its Second Century.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia 5-8 July, 2000

Hobbs, M. (1994).  A study on the prevalence of vision problems and Irlen syndrome among students “At Risk”.  Unpublished manuscript.  Study conducted in New Zealand.

Hoeft, F., Meyler, A., Hernandez, A., & Juel, C. (2007) Functional and morphometric brain dissociation between dyslexia and reading ability.  PNAS, March 6, 2007, 104(10), 4234-4239.

Holland, K.C., Tyrrell, R., & Wilkins, A. (1991).  The effect of Irlen coloured lenses on saccadic eye movements and reading.  Paper presented at the Coloured Spectacles and Reading Difficulties Seminar, London.

Huang, J., Zong, X., Wilkins, A., Jenkins, B., Bozoki, A., Cao, Y. (2011). fMRI evidence that precision ophthalmic tints reduce cortical hyperactivation in migraine. Cephalagia, 31(8):925-36. doi: 10.1177/0333102411409076. Epub 2011 May 26 .http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3132147/ 

Hulme, C., & Hogben, M.J. (1997).  How does a visual transient deficit affect reading? In C. Hulme & M. Snowling (Eds.), Dyslexia: biology, cognition and intervention.  London, UK: Whurr.  59-70.

Inghersoll, B., & Goldstein, S. (1993).  Attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities: Realities, myths, and controversial treatments.  Doubleday.

Iovino, I., Fletcher, J.M., Breitmeyer, B.F., & Foorman, B.R. (1998). Coloured overlays for visual perceptual deficits in children with reading disability and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: are they differentially effective? Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 20(6) 791-806.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10484691

Irlen, H. (1991a).  Reading by the colours.   New York: Avery.

Irlen, H. (1991b).  Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome: screening manual.  Long Beach, CA: Perceptual Development Corporation.

Irlen, H. (1983, August).  Successful treatment of Learning Disabilities.  Paper presented at the 91stAnnual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Anaheim California.

Irlen, H. (1987).  Irlen Differential Perceptual Schedule.  Long Beach, California:  Perceptual Development Corporation.

Irlen, H. (1994).  Scotopic Sensitivity/Irlen Syndrome – Hypothesis and Explanation of the Syndrome. Journal of Behavioural Optometry, 5, 62-65.

Irlen, H. (1994). Dyslexia in higher education: strategies and the value of asking.  Paper presented at the Dyslexia in Higher Education International Conference, 31 October – 2 November, Devon, UK

Irlen, H. (1996).  Dyslexia in higher education: Learning along the continuum.  The Information Bulletin for Learning Disabilities, 1, 44-48.

Irlen, H. (1997). Reading problems and Irlen coloured lenses.  Dyslexia Review, 8(3), 4-7.

Irlen, H. (2000).  Looking beyond the printed page.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia. 5-8 July.

Irlen. H. (2010). The Irlen Revolution: A Guide to Changing Your Perception and Your Life. New York: Square One Publishers.

Irlen, H. (2011). Factors that would account for lack of immediate change. Rebuttal to Irlen Coloured Overlays Do not Alleviate Reading Difficulties by Stuart J. Ritchie, Sergio Della Sala, and Robert D. McIntosh in Paediatrics, 128(4) e932-e938; published ahead of print September 19, 2011, doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0314

Irlen, H. (2012). A sensory intervention for visual processing deficits using precision coloured filters. Autism Science Digest: The Journal of AutismOne, 04, 94-102.

Irlen, H., & Lass, M.J. (1989).  Improving reading problems due to symptoms of Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome using Irlen lenses and overlays.  Education, 30, 1-5.

Irlen, H., & Robinson, G.L. (1996). The effect of Irlen coloured filters on adult perception of workplace performance: a preliminary survey.  Australian Journal of Remedial Education, 1, 7-17.

Irvine, J.H., & Irvine, E.W. (1997).  Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome in a single individual (a case study).  Report by the Naval Air Warfare Centre, Weapons Division, China Lake, CA, April 1997.http://www.rogerwheaton.com/navy-report/

Jang, Y.G. (2013). Implementation of Virtual Coloured Overlays in Mobile Devices for People with Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome. IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.13 No.4, April 2013. http://paper.ijcsns.org/07_book/201304/20130403.pdf 

Jang, Y. G. (2014). Mobile Coloured Overlays for People with Visual Stress. International Journal of Multimedia & Ubiquitous Engineering, 9(6). http://www.sersc.org/journals/IJMUE/vol9_no6_2014/4.pdf 

Jang, Y. G. (2014). Mobile Coloured Overlay and Application to Korean WRRT. Life Science Journal11(7).http://www.rogerwheaton.com/navy-report/

Jeanes, R., Busby, A., Martin, J., Lewis, E., Stevenson, N., Pointon, D., & Wilkins, A. (1997).  Prolonged use of coloured overlays for classroom reading.  Journal of Psychology, 88, 531-548.

Jennings, G.D.J., & Underwood, G. (1984). The influence of parafoveal information on a simple reading task.  In A.G. Gale & F. Johnson (Eds.). Theoretical and applied aspects of eye movement research, (pp179-185). B.V. (North Holland): Elsevier Science Publishers.

Johannes, S., Kussmaul, C.L., Muente, T.F., & Mangun, R. (1996). Developmental dyslexia: passive visual stimulation provides no evidence for a magnocellular processing defect. Neuropsychologia, 34, 1123-1127.

Johnson, P.J., Saba, G., Dorain, E., Belmont, S. (2000).  A Study to test the effectiveness of reading with Irlen coloured overlays for students with Irlen/Scotopic sensitivity syndrome.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia. 5-8 July.

Jordan, D. (1972).  Dyslexia in the classroom.  Columbus, OH: Merrill

Jordan, I. (1998). Visual dyslexia: a guide for parents and teachers.  United Kingdom: Desktop Publications.

Juel C., (1988).  Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of 54 children from first through fourth grades.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 437-447.

Juel, C., Griffith, P., & Gough, P. (1986).  Acquisitions of literacy:  A longitudinal study of children in 1stand 2nd grade.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 243-255.http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=buy.optionToBuy&id=1986-29616-001

Just, M.A., & Carpenter, P.A. (1980).  A  theory of reading: From eye fixations to comprehension. Psychological Review, 87, 329-354.

Kavale, K. (1982).  Meta-analysis of the relationship between visual perceptual skills and reading achievement.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 15, 42-51.http://ldx.sagepub.com/content/15/1/42.abstract

Kiani, R. & Miller, H. (2010). Sensory impairment and intellectual disability. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 16, 228-235.

Kim, S., & Cho, Y. (2010). Clinical Characteristics of Patients With Dyslexia in Korea : Correlation With Meares-Irlen Syndrome. J Korean Ophthalmology Soc. 2010 Dec; 51(12):1639-1642. Korean. Published online 2010 December 21.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3341/jkos.2010.51.12.1639 

Kirby, J.R., & Williams, N.H. (1991).  Learning problems: A cognitive approach.  Toronto, Canada: Kagan & Woo.

Knoblauch, K., Arditi, A., & Szlyk, J. (1991). Effects of chromatic and luminance contrast on reading. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 8(2), 428-439.

Kreuttner, P., & Strum, I. (1990).  The Irlen Approach:  An intervention for students with low reading achievement and symptoms of Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome.  New York City School, New York.

Kriss, Isla, & Bruce J.W. Evans (2005).  The relationship between dyslexia and Meares-Irlen Syndrome. Journal of Research in Reading, 28 (3) 350-364.http://ldx.sagepub.com/content/15/1/42.abstract

Kruk, Richard, Sumbler, Karen, & Willows, Dale (2008).  Visual processing characteristics of children with Meares—Irlen syndrome.  Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 2008, 28, 35-46.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5650879_Visual_processing_characteristics_of_children_with_Meares-Irlen_Syndrome

Kumagai, Keiko, PhD.  (2006). Published paper.  University of Tsukuba, Japan.  Effect of coloured films related in facilitating reading: The result of the General Japanese population and a dyslexic student.

Kyd, L.J.C., Sutherland, G.F.M., & McGettrick, P.M. (1992).  A preliminary appraisal of the Irlen screening process for Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome and the effect of Irlen coloured overlays on reading.  The British Orthoptic Journal, 49, 25-30.

La Berge, D., & Samuels, S. (1974).  Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293-323.

Lea, A.R., & Hailey, D.M. (1990).  Tinted lenses in the treatment of the reading disabled.  Canberra, A.C.T.:  Australian Institute of Health.

Lehmkuhle, S. (1993).  Neurological basis of visual processes in reading.  In D.M. Willows, R.S. Kruk, & E. Corcos (Eds.).  Visual Processes in Reading and Reading disabilities. (pp. 77-94). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J., 77-94.

Lehmkuhle, S., Garzia, R.P., Turner, L., Hash, T., & Baro, J.A. (1993).  A defective visual pathway in children with reading disability.  New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 989-996.

Levinson, H. (1994).  A scientific watergate—Dyslexia: How and why countless millions are deprived of breakthrough medical treatment. Paper available from Harold N. Levinson, M.D., Stonebridge Publishing, Ltd., 15 Lake Rd., Lake Success, NY 11020, USA.

Lewine, J.D. (1997).  Changes in visual evoked magnetic field for people with SSIS: implications for understanding causal mechanisms.  Fourth American Irlen Conference for Perceptual and Learning Development, San Diego, CA, June 1997.

Lewine, J.D. (1999).  Changes in visual evoked magnetic field for people with SSS.  Fourth Biannual Australian Irlen Conference. Newcastle, Australia, May 20-22,1999.

Lewine, J.D., Irlen, H.L., & Orrison, W.W. (1996).  Visual evoked magnetic fields in Scotopic sensitivity syndrome. (Available from New Mexico Institute of Neuro imaging.  The New Mexico Regional Field Medical Centre: Albuquerque, NM).

Lightstone, A., Lightstone, T., & Wilkins, A. (1999).  Both coloured overlays and coloured lenses can improve reading fluency, but their optimal chromacities differ.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 19, 279-285.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1475-1313.1999.00442.x/abstract

Livingstone, M. (1994).  Eye spy: decoding dyslexia.  Focus, January 21, 1994, 1-2.

Livingstone, M.S., & Hubel, D.H. (1984).  Anatomy and physiology of a colour system in the primate visual cortex.  Journal of Optometric Visual Development, 17, 4-15.

Livingstone, M.S., & Hubel, D.H. (1987).  Psychophysical evidence for separate channels for the perception of form, colour, movement and depth.  Journal of Neuroscience, 7, 3416-3468.http://www.jneurosci.org/content/7/11/3416.short

Livingstone, M.S., Rosen, G.D., Drislane, F.W., & Galaburda, A.M. (1991).  Physiological and anatomical evidence for a magnocellular defect in developmental dyslexia.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 88, 7943-7947.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC52421/

Loew, S.J., Marsh, N.V. & Watson, K (2014). Symptoms of Meares-Irlen/Visual Stress Syndrome in subjects diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 14(2), 87-92.  http://www.redalyc.org/pdf/337/33730456005.pdf 

Loew, S.J., & Watson, K. (2012). A prospective genetic marker of the visual perception disorder Meares–Irlen syndrome. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 114(3), 870-882.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22913027

Loew, S.J. & Watson, K. (2013). The prevalence of symptoms of scotopic sensitivity/Meares-Irlen syndrome in subjects diagnosed with ADHD: Does misdiagnosis play a significant role? Croatian Review of Rehabilitation Research, Vol.49. Supplement, str. 50-58.

Lopez, R., Yolton, R.L., Kohl, P., Smith, D.L. & Saxerud, M.H. (1994).  Comparison of Irlen Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome test results to a academic and visual performance data.  Journal of the American Optometric Association, 65(10), 705-714.

Lovegrove, W. (1984).  Dyslexia & the vision factor.  Education News, 19, 15-18.

Lovegrove, W. (1988).  Preliminary results of the effects of the Irlen lenses on reading performance.  Dyslexia Research Foundation Grant.

Lovegrove, W.J. (1996).  Dyslexia and a transient/magnocellular pathway deficit: the current situation and future directions.  The Australian Journal of Psychology, 48, 167-171.

Lovegrove, W.J., Garzia, R.P., & Nicholson, S.B. (1990).  Experimental evidence for a transient system deficit in specific reading disability.  Journal of the American Optometric Association, 61, 137-146.

Lovegrove, W., Martin, F., & Slaghuis, W.A. (1986).  Theoretical and experimental case for a visual deficit in specific reading disability.  Cognitive Neuropsychology, 3, 225-267.

Lovegrove, W.J., McNicol, D., Martin, F., MacKenzie, B., & Pepper, K. (1988).  Phonological recoding, memory processing and memory deficits in specific reading disability.  In D. Vickers & P. Smith (Eds.). Human information processing: measures, mechanisms and models.  Amsterdam: North Holland, 65-82.

Lovegrove, W.J., & Williams, M.C. (1993).  Visual temporal processing deficits in specific reading disability.  In D.M. Willows, R.S. Kruk, & E. Carcos (Eds.), Visual process in reading and reading disabilities.  Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.  311-330.

Lovett, M.W. (1986).  Sentential structure and the perceptual spans of two samples of disabled readers. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 15, 153-715.

Lovett, M.W. (1987).  A developmental approach to reading disability: Accuracy and speed criteria of normal and deficient reading skill.  Child Development, 58, 234-60.

Amanda K. Ludlow, Elaine Taylor-Whiffen, and Arnold J. Wilkins, “Coloured Filters Enhance the Visual Perception of Social Cues in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders,” ISRN Neurology, vol. 2012, Article ID 298098, 6 pages, 2012. doi:10.5402/2012/298098 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3316948/http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/298098/

Ludlow, A., Wilkins, A., & Heaton, Pam. (2006).  The effect of coloured overlays on reading ability in children with Autism.  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Spring 2006.

Ludlow, A.K. ; Wilkins, A.J. ; Heaton, P. (2008) Coloured overlays enhance visual perceptual performance in children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 498-515.


Lovett, M.W. (1987).  A developmental approach to reading disability: accuracy and rate criteria in the subtyping of dyslexia.  Brain and Language, 22, 69-71.

Mackova, Z., (1992).  Irlenover Syndrom Skotopickej Senzitivity.  Psychologica a Patopsychologica, 27, 259-263.

Maclachlan, A., Yale, S., & Wilkins, A. (1993).  Open trial of subjective precision tinting: A follow-up of 55 patients.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 13, 175-179.

Martin, F., MacKenzie, B., Lovegrove, W., & McNicol, D. (1993).  Irlen lenses and the treatment of specific reading disability.  An evaluation of outcomes and processes.  Australian Journal of Psychology, 45, 141-150.

Mason, A.J.S., Fowler, M.S., & Stein, J.F. (1994).  Evaluation of “The Intuitive Colorimeter”. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 35(4), 1754.

Mazer, S.R., McIntyre, C.W., Murray, M.E., Till, R.E., & Blackwell, S.L. (1983).  Visual persistence and information pick up in learning disabled children.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16, 221-225.http://ldx.sagepub.com/content/16/4/221.abstract

McLachlan, A., Yale, S., & Wilkins, A. (1993).  Open trial of subjective precision tinting:  A follow-up to 55 patients.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 13, 175-179.

Mears, O. (1980).  Figure/ground, brightness, contrast & reading disabilities.  Visible Language, 14, 13-29.

Menaker, S.J., Breton, M.D., Breton, M.L., Radcliffe, J., & Gole, G.A. (1993).  Do tinted lenses improve the reading performance of dyslexic children?  Archives of Ophthalmology, 111, 213-218.

Miller, L.S. (1984.  Scotopic sensitivity and reading disability.  Unpublished Master of Education thesis, California State University Long Beach.

Minwook, C., Seung-Hyun, K., Joo-Young, K., and Yoonae, A. C. (2014). Specific visual symptoms and signs of Meares-Irlen syndrome in Korean. Korean J. Ophthalmol. 28, 159–163. doi: 10.3341/kjo.2014.28.2.159

Monger, L., Wilkins, A., & Allen, P. (2014). Identifying visual stress during a routine eye examination. Journal of Optometrydoi:10.1016/j.optom.2014.10.001

Munday, R. (1985). Coloured glasses bring new hope for dyslexics.  The Australians Womens Weekly, June 1985, 6-7.

Murphy, N. (1983).  Diagnosis and remediation for scotopic sensitivity syndrome.  Licensed Psychologist, Lecturer University of Hong Kong.

Nandakumar, K.,& Leat, S.J. (2008) Dyslexia: a review of two theories Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 91(4), 333-340.


Newby, R.F., & Lyon, G.R. (1991).  Neurological subtypes of learning disabilities.  In J.E. Obrzut & G.W. Hynd (Eds.), Neuropsychological foundations of learning disabilities.  New York: Academic Press.  355-379.

Nichols, S.A., McLeod, J.S., Holder, R.L., & McLeod, H.S.T. (2009) Screening for dyslexia, dyspraxia and Meares/Irlen syndrome in higher educationDyslexia, 15(1), 42-60.


Nobel, J., Orton, M., Irlen, S., & Robinson, G. (2004).  A controlled field study of the use of coloured overlays on reading achievement.  Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 9(2) 14-22.

Northway, N., Manahilov, V., & Simpson, W. (2009) Coloured filters improve exclusion of perceptual noise in visually symptomatic dyslexicsJournal of Research in Reading , Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 223-230.

O’Connor, P., & Sofo, F. (1988).  Dyslexia and tinted lenses: A response to Gordon Stanley. Australian Journal of Remedial Education, 20(1), 10-12.

O’Connor, P.D., Sofo, F., Kendall, L., & Olsen, G. (1990).  Reading disabilities and the effects of coloured filters.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 597-603, 620.

Owre, K., & Bryant, L. (1992).  Innovations in reading programming for learning disabled students.  (Final report, Las Cruces Public School, Las Cruces, New Mexico)

Palomo-Álvarez, C., & Puell, M.C. (2013). Effects of wearing yellow spectacles on visual skills, reading speed, and visual symptoms in children with reading difficulties. Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 251 (3), 945-951. [SUPPORT FOR PRECISION TINTING – YELLOW ONLY PRODUCTES NO SIGNIFICANT RESULTS]

Pammer, K., & Lovegrove W. (2001).  The influence of colour on transient system activity: implications for dyslexia research.  Perception & Psychophysics, 63(3), 490-500http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758%2FBF03194415

Pammer, K., & Wheatley, C. (2001).  Isolating the M(y)-cell response in dyslexia using the spatial frequency doubling illusion.  Vision Research, 41, 2139-2147.

Park, S.H., Kim, S., Cho, Y.A., Joo, C. (2012).  The Effect of Coloured Filters in Patients with Meares-Irlen Syndrome. J Korean Ophthalmol Soc. 2012 Mar;53(3):452-459. Korean. Published online 2012 March 15.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3341/jkos.2012.53.3.452 

Parker, M.C. (2004). Photon Induced Visual Abnormalities (PIVA) and Visual Dyslexia. Paper prepared for the Nebraska Occupational Therapy Association Conference. October 9, Lincoln, NE.

Parra, J., da Silva, F., Stroink, H., & Kalitzin, S. (2007)  Is colour modulation an independent factor in human visual photosensitivity?  Brain, 130, 1679-1689.

Pavlides, C.A. (1985).  Eye movements in dyslexia: Their diagnostic significance. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 18, 42-50.

Perfetti, C.A.  (1984).  Reading acquisition and beyond: Decoding includes cognition.  American Journal of Education, 40-60.

Pointer, D.G., & Struthers, I. (1994).  An investigation into the remediation of some reading problems using colour.  Norfolk, U.K.: Norfolk County Council Education Department, Special Education Services.

Pumfrey, P. (1992).  Looking at dyslexia through rose-coloured spectacles.   Director, Centre for Educational Guidance and Special Needs, University of Manchester.

Ray, N.J., Fowler, S., & Stein, J.F. (2005). Yellow filters can improve magnocellular function: motion sensitivity, convergence, accommodation, and reading.  Annals N.Y. Academy of Science, 1039, 283-293.

Raymond, E. (2011). Coloured overlays and the reading fluency of middle school students with cognitive disabilities. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Cedarville University, Ohio, USA.

Rickelman, R.J., & Henk, W.A. (1990). Coloured overlays and tinted lens filters.  The Reading Teacher, 44 (2), 166-168.

Riddell, P. M.Wilkins, A. and Hainline, L. (2006The effect of coloured lenses on the visual evoked response in children with visual stress Optometry and Vision Science, 83 (5). pp. 299-305. ISSN 1040-5488 doi: 10.1097/01.opx.0000216125.83236.af 

Ridder, W.H., Borsting, E., Tosha, C., Tong, A., Dougherty, R., & Chase, C. (2008) ERGs and Psychophysical Thresholds in Students with Reading DiscomfortOptometry and Vision Science, 85(3), 180-186.

Riding, R.J., & Pugh, J.C. (1977). Iconic memory and reading performance in nine year old children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 47, 132-137.

Robinson, G.L. (1990).  An evaluation of the Irlen lenses as a treatment for specific reading disorders-commentary on M.M. Cotton and K.M. Evans.  Australian Journal of Psychology, 42, 13-15.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1080/00049539008260100/abstract

Robinson, G.L. (1992).  Coloured lenses and reading difficulties: What is research telling us?  The Journal of the Victorian Adult Literacy and Basic Education Council Inc., 14(6), 16-20.

Robinson, G.L. (1992). Irlen lenses, visual processing and specific reading skills and strategies: A review of evolving research. Paper presented at the 2nd International Irlen Clinic Director’s Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, 30 September – 3 October 1992.

Robinson, G.L. (1992).  Irlen tinted lenses: Their likely effects and ways in which these effects may be enhanced.  Special Education Centre, University of Newcastle, Australia: Special Education Centre, University of Newcastle, Australia.

Robinson, G.L. (1994). Coloured lenses and reading: a review of research into reading achievement, reading strategies and causal mechanisms.  Australian Journal of Special Education, 18, 3-14.

Robinson, G.L. (1996).  Irlen lenses and adults: preliminary results of a controlled study of reading speed, accuracy and comprehension.  Irlen Institute Fourth International Directors/Screeners Conference, June 27-30, 1996, New Orleans, LA.

Robinson, G.L. (1997).  The ratio of males to females with literacy/learning disabilities. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2(3), 7-13.

Robinson, G.L. (2000).  Irlen coloured filters and adults. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5(1), 15-23.

Robinson, G.L., & Conway, R.N.F. (1990).  The effects of Irlen coloured lenses on specific reading skills and perception of ability:  A  twelve month validity study.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 589-596.

Robinson, G.L., & Conway, R.N.F. (1994).  Irlen filters and reading strategies: effect of coloured filters on reading achievement, specific reading strategies and perception of ability. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 467-483.

Robinson, G.L., & Conway, R.N.F. (2000).  Irlen lenses and adults: a small scale study of reading speed, accuracy, comprehension and self-image.  Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5, 4-13.

Robinson, G.L., & Foreman, P.J. (1999).  The effects of coloured filters on eye movement: a long-term placebo controlled and masked study.  Behavioural Optometry, 7(4), 5-17.

Robinson, G.L., & Foreman, P.J. (1999). Scotopic sensitivity/Irlen syndrome and the use of coloured filters: A long-term placebo controlled study of reading strategies using analysis of miscue. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 88, 35-52.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10214632

Robinson, G. L., & Foreman, P. J. (1999). Scotopic sensitivity/Irlen syndrome and the use of coloured filters: A long-term placebo controlled and masked study of reading achievement and perception of ability.  Perceptual & Motor Skills, 89(1), 83-113.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10544403

Robinson, G.L., & Foreman, P.J. (2004). The family incidence of a visual-perceptual subtype of dyslexia.  Focus on Dyslexia Research Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 27-40.

Robinson, G.L., Foreman, P.J., & Dear, K.G.B. (1996).  The familial incidence of symptoms of Scotopic Sensitivity/Irlen Syndrome.  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 83, 1043-1055.

Robinson, G.L., Foreman, P.J., & Dear, K.G.B. (2000).  The familial incidence of symptoms of Scotopic sensitivity/Irlen syndrome: comparison of referred and mass-screened groups.  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91, 707-724.

Robinson, G.L., Foreman, P.J., Dear, K.G.B., and Sparkes, D.  (2004).  The Family Incidence of a Visual-Perceptual Subtype of Dyslexia.  Nova Science Publishers, 27-40.

Robinson, G.L., Hobbs, M., Thomas, G., Freney, P., & Wilson, E. (1997).  The incidence of symptoms of Irlen syndrome/Scotopic sensitivity in a sample of Australian and New Zealand Schools.  Unpublished manuscript.

Robinson, G.L., Hopkins, B., & Davies, T. (1995).  The incidence of Scotopic sensitivity syndrome in secondary school populations: a preliminary survey.  The Bulletin for Learning Disabilities, 5, 36-56.

Robinson, G.L., McGregor, N.R., Roberts, T.K., Dunstan, R.H., & Butt, H.  (2001).  A biochemical analysis of people with chronic fatigue who have Irlen syndrome: speculation concerning immune system dysfunction.  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 93, 486-504.

Robinson, G.L., & Miles J. (1987).  The use of coloured overlays to improve visual processing:  A preliminary survey.  The Exceptional Child, 34, 65-70.

Robinson, G.L., Roberts, T.K., McGregor, N.R., Dunstan, R.H., & Butt, H. (1999) . Understanding the causal mechanisms of visual processing problems: a possible biochemical basis for Irlen Syndrome? Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 4(4), 21-29.

Robinson, G.L., Roberts, T.K., McGregor, N.R., & Barbolini, G., (2000).  A biochemical analysis of people with chronic fatigue who have Irlen syndrome.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia. 5-8 July 2000.

Robinson, G.L., & Whiting, P.R.  (2003).  The interpretation of emotion from facial expression for children with visual processing problems.  Australasian Journal of Special Education, 27(2), 50-67.http://www.dyslexiaservices.com.au/Interpretation_of_emotion2003.pdf

Romani, A., Conte, S., Callieco, R., Bergamaschi, R., Versino, M., Lanzi, G., Zambrino, C.A., & Cosi, V. (2001).  Visual evoked potential abnormalities in dyslexic children.  Functional Neurology, 16(3), 219-229.

Roseheart, D.A. (1995).  Irlen syndrome: A review of the research.  Full spectrum reading.  Toronto, CANADA.

Rourke, B.P. (1989).  Nonverbal learning disabilities:  The syndrome and the model.  New York:  The Guilford Press.

Safra, Doris & Steiner, Fritz (2005). Abnormal postneuritic disturbances and their reduction through a colour filter.  Presentation at Kongrese/Congres Strabologische und Neurophthalmologische Falldemonstrationen, St. Gallen, 16-18, 06,2005.

Saint-John, L.M., & White, M.A. (1988).  The effect of coloured transparencies on the reading performance of reading disabled children.  Australian Journal of Psychology, 40, 403-411.

Sakitt, B. (1976).  Iconic memory.  Psychological Review, 83, 257-276.

Salvaia, J., Elias, S., & Shepherd, A. J. (2014). Symptoms of visual discomfort from automobile lights and their correlation with headache in night-time taxi drivers. Lighting Research and Technology, 46(3), 354-363.

Sawyer, C., Taylor, S., & Willcocks, S. (1994).  Transparent coloured overlays and learning difficulties. Educational Psychology in Practice, 9(4), 217-220.

Schaffer, M. (1994). The effect of Irlen coloured overlays on improving student reading achievement.  Unpublished report, District 25 Queens, New York City, Board of Administration Studies.

Schein, M. O.D. (1994).  Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome, Reading Disability and Vision Disorders. Journal of Behavioural Optometry, 5, 63-65.

Scott, L., McWhinnie, H., Taylor, L., Stevenson, N., Irons, P., Lewis E., Evans, M., Evans, B., & Wilkins, A.  (2002). Coloured overlays in schools: orthoptic and optometric findings.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 22, 156-165.http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology/overlays/opo22.pdf

Shafir, U., & Siegel, L.S. (1994).  Subtypes of learning disabilities in adolescents and adults.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 123-134.

Shapiro, K.L., Raymond, J.E., & Arnell, K.M. (1994).  Attention to visual pattern information produces the attentional blink in rapid serial visual presentations.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 20, 357-371.

Shatz, C.J. (1993). The developing brain.  In Mind and brain: Readings from Scientific American magazine (pp.15-26).  New York, NY

Shendell, D.G., Barnet, C. & Boese, S. (2004).  Science-based recommendations to prevent or reduce potential exposure to biological, chemical, and physical agents in schools.  Journal of School Health, 74(10) 390-396, 7.

Simons, H.D., & Girsham, J.D. (1987).  Binocular anomalies and reading problems.  Journal of the American Optometric Association, 58, 578-587.

Singleton, C. & Trotter, S. (2005). Visual stress in adults with and without dyslexia.  Journal of Research in Reading, 28(3) 365-378.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2005.00275.x/abstract

Sitch, S., Sperrazza, A., & Schubert, M. (1994).  The occurrence of the symptoms of Scotopic sensitivity syndrome in western New York.  Unpublished manuscript.

Skottun, B.C. (1997). The magnocellular deficit theory of dyslexia. Trends in Neuroscience, 29(9), 397-398.

Skottun, B.C. (2000). The magnocellular deficit theory of dyslexia: the evidence from contrast sensitivity.  Vision Research, 40, 111-127.

Skottun, B.C., & Parke, L.A. (1999).  The possible relationship between visual deficits and dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 2-5.

Solan, H.A. (1998). Influence of varying luminance and wavelength on comprehension and reading efficienty: a brief review of three studies.  Journal of Optometric Vision Development, 29(3), 98-103.

Solan, H.A., Branna, J.R., & Ficarra, A.P. (1997). Transient and sustained processing: effects of varying luminance and wavelength on reading comprehension.  Journal of American Optometric Association, 68, 503-510.

Solan, H.A., Ficarra, A., Brannan, J.R., & Rucker, F. (1998).  Eye movement efficiency in normal and reading disabled elementary school children: Effects of varying luminance and wavelength.  Journal of the American Optometric Association, 69(7), 455-464.

Solan, H.A., & Richman, J. (1990).  Irlen lenses: A critical appraisal.  Journal of the American Optimetric Association, 61(10), 789-796.

Solis, M. (2010). The Effects of Coloured Paper on Musical Notation Reading on Music Students with Dyslexia. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Texas Tech Universityhttp://repositories.tdl.org/ttu-ir/bitstream/handle/2346/ETD-TTU-2010-12-1100/SOLIS-THESIS.pdf?sequence=2 

Solman, R.T., Cho, H., & Dain, S.J. (1991).  Colour mediated grouping effects in good and disabled readers.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 11, 320-327.

Solman, R.T., Dain, S.J., & Keech, S.L. (1991).  Colour-mediated contrast sensitivity in disabled readers. Optometry and Vision Science, 68, 331-337.

Solman, R.T., & May, J.T. (1990).  Spatial localization discrepancies: A visual deficit in reading. American Journal of Psychology, 103, 243-263.

Sparks, D.L., Robinson, G.L., Dunstan, H., & Roberts, T.K. (2003).  Plasma cholesterol levels and Irlen Syndrome: preliminary study of 10- to 17-yr., old students.  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 97, 745-752.

Sparkes, D.L., Robinson, G.L., Roberts, T.K., Dunstan, R.H. (2006).  General Health and Associated Biochemistry in a Visual-Perceptual Subtype of Dyslexia.  Learning Disabilities: New Research, Nova Science Pub., New York, 81-98.

Stanley, P.M. (1986).  Study of Scotopic sensitivity benefits from photopic transmittant lenses. Australian Institute of Learning Disabilities Bulletin.

Stanley, P.M. (1989).  Does latitude or longitude, age, sex, allergies, birth, or genetics affect Irlen filters: A 5 Year Study.  Presented at the Dyslexia Research Foundation conference.

Stanovich, K.E. (1986).  Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy.  Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-407.

Stein, John (2003).  Visual motion sensitivity and reading.  Neuropsychologia, 41, 1785-1793.http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=DD76738F2ABE918073FAF239C0C3EC87?doi=

Stein, J., & Fowler, S. (1985).  Effect of monocular occlusion on visuomotor perception and reading in dyslexic children.  The Lancet, 2, 68-73.

Stein, J., & Talcott, J. (1999).  Impaired neuronal timing in developmental dyslexia: the magnocellular hypothesis.  Dyslexia, 5, 55-77.

Steiner, Fritz (2005).  Schleudertrauma und visuelle Wahrnehmungsstorungen.  Schleudertrauma-Info, S., 22-26.

Steiner, Fritz (2005). Die Irlen Methode zur Behandlung von Leseschwaeche.  Interdisziplinaeres Lehrubuch zur Behandlung von Lern- und Leseschwierigkeiten, SZH/CSPS, Schweizerische Zentralstelle für Heillpaedagogik 2005, 193-215.

Stokes, L.D., & Stokes, M.C. (1990).  A follow-up of user’s satisfaction with Irlen filters.  Irlen International Newsletter, 3, 3-5.

Stolzenberg, M.E., Ritty, J.M., Cohen, A., & Liebegmann, S. (1989).  Effects of ocular functioning and time upon reading proficiency.  Journal of the American Optometric Association, 60, 122-126.

Stuart, R.J., Eckerling, G.B., McQuown, D.S., & Beebe, S.C. (1987, December 31).  To the Editor.  The New England Journal of Medicine, 31 (27).

Sumbler, K. (1994).  Visual processing characteristics of disabled readers diagnosed with Scotopic sensitivity syndrome and the effectiveness of the Irlen overlays.  Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Toronto, Canada.

Talcott, J., Hansen, P.C., Assoku, E.L., & Stein, J. (2000). Visual motion sensitivity in dyslexia: evidence for temporal and energy integration deficits.  Neuropsychologia, 38, 935-943.http://nbr.physiol.ox.ac.uk/papers/np00.pdf

Taubenschmid, Margit (2005). Visuelle Wahrnemungsschwaeche und Irlen-Syndrom. Erziehungswissenschaftliche Forschung – Paedagogische Praxis, Reihe der Abteilung fuer Empirische Erziehungswissenschaft des Instituts fuer erziehungswissenschaft der Universitaet Wien, Peter lang, Europaeischer Verlag der Wissenschaften, Frankfurt 2005.

Temple, M. (1992).  Visual perceptual processing: A review of some of the research investigating the presence of a deficit in the specifically reading disabled and normal populations.  Paper presented at the 2nd Irlen International Conference, Hawaii.

Temple, M. (2000).  Some of the effects of Irlen syndrome on gifted students.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia. 5-8 July 2000.

Tosha, C., Borsting, E., Ridder III, W.H., & Chase, C. (2009) Accommodation response and visual discomfort. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 29(6), 625-633.

Tosta, S., Irlen, H., Lewine, J., & Annibali, J. (2014, May). Precision-tinted coloured filters: A successful intervention for medically resistant headaches and migraines after brain injury. In BRAIN INJURY (Vol. 28, No. 5-6, pp. 683-683). TELEPHONE HOUSE, 69-77 PAUL STREET, LONDON EC2A 4LQ, ENGLAND: INFORMA HEALTHCARE.

Tuettemann, E. (August 1986).  The use of tinted lenses in the treatment of reading disabilities.  Education Department Perth Western Australia.

Twine, S. (1989). Coloured Glass for All to See?  Australian Institute of Learning Disabilities and The Dyslexia Research Foundation of Australia,  Perth Western Australia.

Tyrrell, R., Holland, K., Dennis, D., & Wilkins, A. (1995).  Coloured overlays, visual discomfort, visual search and classroom reading.  Research in Reading, 18, 10-23.http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology/overlays/JRR18.PDF

Valdois, S., Gerard, C., Vanault, P., & Dugas, M. (1995).  Perceptual developmental dyslexia: a visual attentional account?  Cognitive Neuropsychology, 12, 31-67.

Vidal-López, J. (2011) The role of attributional bias and visual stress on the improvement of reading speed using coloured filters Perceptual and Motor Skills, 112 (3), pp. 770-782.

Waring, S., Prior, M., Sanson, A., & Smart, D. (1996).  Predictors of “recovery” from reading disability. Australian Journal of Psychology, 48, 160-166.

Warmington, M., Stothard, S.E., & Snowling, M.J. (2012) Assessing dyslexia in higher education: the York adult assessment battery-revisedJournal of Research in Special Educational Needs, Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012.


Westgard, S. (1993).  Colour me literate: The effect of Irlen coloured lenses on visual perceptual distortion.  Unpublished M.Ed. project Northwest Nazarene College, USA.

Whichard, J.A., Feller, R.W., & Kastner, R. (2000). The Incidence of Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome in Colorado Inmates.  Journal of Correctional Education, 51(3), 294-299.

Whiteley, H.E., & Smith, C.D. (2001). The Use of Tinted Lenses to Alleviate Reading Difficulties.  Journal of Research in Reading, 24(1), 30-40.

Whiting, P. (1985).  How difficult can reading be?  New insight into reading problems.  Journal of the English Teachers Association, 49, 49-55.

Whiting, Paul R. (1988). Improvements in Reading and Other Skills Using Irlen Coloured Lenses. Australian Journal of Remedial Education. 20(1), 13-15.

Whiting, P.R. (1992).  Coloured lenses.  What do we know now? Australia SPELD News, December 1992.

Whiting, P. (1995).  Visual aspects of dyslexia.  The Bulletin for Learning Disabilities, 2(1), 13-35.

Whiting, P.R. (2000).  Assessment for dyslexia.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia. 5-8 July, 2000.

Whiting, P., & Robinson, G.L. (1988).  Using Irlen coloured lenses for reading:  A clinical study. Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 5, 7-10.

Whiting, P.R., & Robinson, G.L.  (2001).  The interpretation of emotion from facial expressions for children with a visual sub-type of dyslexia.  Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 6,(4), 6-14.

Whiting, P., Robinson, G.L., & Parrot, C.F. (1994).  Irlen coloured filters for reading: a six year follow up. Australian Journal of Remedial Education, 26, 13-19.

Wilkins, A. (1993).  Overlays for classroom and optometric use.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 14.

Wilkins, Arnold (2002). Coloured overlays and their effects on reading speed: a review.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 22, 448-454.

Wilkins, A.J., & Clark, C. (1990).  Modulation of lighting from fluorescent lights.  Lighting and Research Technology, 22, 103-109.

Wilkins, A., Cleave, R., Grayson, N., & Wilson, L. (2009) Typography for children may be inappropriately designedJournal of Research in Reading, 32(4), 402-412.

Wilkins, A.J., & Evans, B.J.W. (2010) Visual stress, its treatment with spectral filters,  and its relationship to visually induced motion sickness Applied Ergonomics, 41(4), 509-515.

Wilkins, A.J., Evans, B.J.W., Brown, J.A., Busby, A.E., Wingfield, A.E., Jeanes, R.J., & Bald, J. (1994).  Double-masked placebo-controlled trial of precision spectral filters in children who use coloured overlays.  Ophthalmological & Physiological Optics, 14, 365-370.

Wilkins, A.J., Huang, J., & Cao, Y. (2004).  Visual stress theory and its application to reading and reading tests.  Journal of research in Reading, 27(2), 152-162.

Wilkins, A.J., Jeanes, R.J., Pumfrey, P.D., & Laskier, M. (1996).  Rate of reading test: its reliability and its validity in the assessment of the effects of coloured overlays.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 16, 491-497.

Wilkins, A.J., & Lewis, E. (1999). Coloured overlays, text, and texture. Perception, 28, 641-650.

Wilkins, A.J., Lewis, E., Smith, F., Rowland, E., & Tweedie, W. (2001).  Coloured overlays and their benefit for reading.  Journal of Research in reading, 24(1), 41-64.http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology/overlays/jrr24.pdf

Wilkins, A., & Neary, G. (1991).  Some visual, optometric and perceptual effects of coloured glasses. Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 11, 163-171.

Wilkins, A.J., Nimmo-Smith, I., & Jansons, J.E. (1992).  Colorimeter for the intuitive manipulation of hue and saturation and its role in the study of perceptual distortion.  Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 12(3), 381-385.

Wilkins, A., Nimmo-Smith, I., Slater, A.I., & Bedocs, L. (1989).  Fluorescent lighting, headaches and eye strain.  Lighting Research and Technology, 21, 11-18.

Wilkins, A.J., Sihra, N., & Myers, A. (2005). Increasing reading speed by using colours: issues concerning reliability and specificity, and their theoretical and practical implications. Perception, 34(1):109-20.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15773610

Wilkins, A., Sihra, N., & Smith, I.N. (2005). How precise do precision tints have to be and how many are necessary? Ophthalmic Physiol Opt., 25(3):269-76.

Wilkins, A., & Wilkinson, P. (1991).  A tint to reduce eye strain from fluorescent lighting:  Preliminary observations.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 11, 172-175.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-1313.1991.tb00217.x/abstract

Williams, M.C., & Bologna, N.B. (1985).  Perceptual grouping in good and poor readers.  Perception & Psychophysics, 38, 367-374.

Williams, M.C., Brannan, J.R., & Latrigue, E.K. (1987).  Visual search in good and poor readers. Clinical Vision Sciences, 1, 367-371.

Williams, M.C., Breitmeyer, B.G., Lovegrove, W.J., & Gutierrez, C. (1991).  Metacontrast with masks varying in spatial frequency and wavelength.  Vision Research, 31, (11).

Williams. M. & LeCluyse, K. (1989). Perceptual consequences of a transient system deficit in disabled readers.  Procedures International Congress of Psychology, Sydney,        Australia.

Williams, M.C., LeCluyse, K., & Rock Faucheux, A. (1992).  Effective interventions for reading disability. Journal of the American Optometric Association, 63, 411-417.

Williams, M.C., Littell, R.R., Reinoso, C. & Greve, K. (1994).  Effect of wavelength on performance of attention-disordered and normal children on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.  Neuropsychology, 8(2), 187-193.

Williams, M.C., & Lovegrove, W.J. (1992).  Sensory and perceptual processing in reading disability.  In J. Brannan (Ed.), Application of parallel processing in vision.  Amsterdam: Elsevier Sciences.  263-302.

Williams, M.C., May, J.G., Solman, R., & Zhou, H. (1994). The effects of spatial filtering and contrast reduction on visual search times in good and poor readers.  Vision Research 35(2), 285-291.

Winter, S. (1987).  Irlen lenses: An appraisal. Australian Educational and Development Psychologist, 5, 7-10.

Zeki, S. (1993).  The visual image in mind and brain.  In Mind and brain: Readings from Scientific American magazine (pp.27-39).  New York, NY

International Publications

Hinweis: Ausbildung zum Irlen Screener/zur Irlen Screenerin: Nächster Termin: Freitag/Samstag 30./31. Januar 2015 in Dornach Schweiz Bei Interesse rasche Kontaktaufnahme erwünscht.  Kurstage 1 und 2 (Theoretische Grundlagen und Praxis) Tag: Fallbesprechungen. Termin nach Vereinbarung

Hinweis auf Publikationen:

Steiner Fritz, HWS-Distorsion (Schleudertrauma)/Schädel-Hirn-Trauma und visuelle Wahrnehmungsstörungen, in Optometrie, Fachpublikation für Augenoptik, Offizielles Organ der Wissenschaftlichen Vereinigung für Augenoptik und Optometrie e. V. (WVAO), Mainz, 2011/2

Steiner Fritz, Irlen Methode, in Urwyler Markus (Hrsg.),Schleudertrauma, Gefangen im Schmerz oder Beginn eines neuen Lebens?, Verlag Metacentre, Paulusdruckerei Fribourg, 2011

Steiner Fritz, Autismus Spektrum Störung und visuelle Wahrnehmungsstörungen, Möglichkeiten der Irlen Methode in – “autismus contact” Fachdokumentation von und für Eltern und Fachleute, autismus deuschte schweiz, Zürich, überarbeitete Fassung, 2014

Viviane Perrenoud, Autisme et problématique visuelle, quel soutien dans les activités scolaires?, Memoire professionnel présenté à UER pédagogie spécialisée de la HEP VD pour l‘optention du certificat du Cycle d‘étude Avencées en „Déficits visuels, 2011

Susanne Hottiger-Müller, Farbige Gläser verändern die Welt: IRLEN-Syndrom und Selbstkonzept, Akademiker Verlag, 2014, ISBN: 978-3-639-46915-8  (erhältlich im Buchhandel)

Neu! AUTISMUS DEUTSCHE SCHWEIZ – “autismus contact” Fachdokumentation von und für Eltern und Fachleute, 2014, überarbeitete Fassung

Hanspeter Michel, Optometrist, IRLEN Syndrom – eine visuelle Wahrnehmungsstörung, in Optometrie, Fachpublikation für Augenoptik, Offizielles Organ der Wissenschaftlichen Vereinigung für Augenoptik und Optometrie e. V. (WVAO), Mainz, Optometrie 2/2014

Safra Doris,  Der Struwwelpeter: Ein Reizüberflutungssyndrom, in Ophta, Schweizerische Fachzeitschrift für augenärztliche Medizin und Technologie, ophta • 3 / 2014

Hanspeter Michel, Optometrist, Eine visuelle Wahrnehmungsstörung, in Schweizer Optiker, Offizielles Organ des Schweizer Optikverbandes (SOV) und des Schweizerischen Berufsverbandes für Augenoptik und Optometrie,  9/2014, Luzern


find a clinic2

more info irlen com

  • The books are available
    from online stores.

    Helen Irlen books

    Click on image for a larger view.